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Torque Models

A TorqueModel defines a particular torque acting on a rigid body based on a model of the physics in the body's environment. When combined together with a PropagationEulerianAxes, the torque models define the Euler equations of motion for the rigid body. The Eulerian axes uses the torque models along with a specified inertia matrix to determine the orientation rate and angular acceleration used to integrate the rigid body's orientation (attitude) and angular velocity.

In most cases, the torque model will have a "body axes" property that needs to be configured to refer to the IntegrationAxes (get) of the PropagationEulerianAxes that is affected by the torque.

Note Note

The functionality described in this topic requires a license for the Orbit Propagation Library.

Reaction Wheel Torque

ReactionWheelTorque models the effects of a spinning reaction wheel inside a rigid body. The spin axis of the reaction wheel is fixed to body axes of the object.

Three instances of this type are needed to provide 3-axis attitude control (assuming that their spin axes are linearly independent). For example, three reaction wheels that have spin axes in the +X, +Y, and +Z could be attached to a spacecraft. This could be modeled by defining three ReactionWheelTorque instances with their SpinAxes (get / set) set to be UnitX (get), UnitY (get), and UnitZ (get), respectively. All three of these instances would have to be added to the AppliedTorques (get) property of the PropagationEulerianAxes used to define the attitude of the spacecraft.

Gravity Gradient Torque

GravityGradientTorque models the first-order effects of the gravity gradient upon the attitude of a satellite.

Unlike the other concrete TorqueModel types, gravity gradient torque requires the rigid body to be a satellite in orbit around a celestial body. Thus, the satellite's attitude must be modeled by a properly configured PropagationEulerianAxes, and the satellite's position and velocity must be modeled by a properly configured PropagationNewtonianPoint.

The Eulerian axes must have a GravityGradientTorque instance added to its AppliedTorques (get), and the Newtonian point must have one of the available gravity models added to its AppliedForces (get).

The GravityGradientTorque instance should then be configured to use the IntegrationAxes (get) of the PropagationEulerianAxes as its BodyAxes (get / set) and the IntegrationPoint (get) of the PropagationNewtonianPoint as its BodyCenterOfMass (get / set).

Off-axis Torque

OffAxisTorque models the effects of an applied force that is not aligned with the center of mass of the rigid body. This effect is modeled by taking the cross product of a body-fixed offset vector with the applied force vector.

Constant Torque

ConstantTorque models any torque that is constant with respect to the axes in which it is modeled.

Because all PropagationEulerianAxes instances require at least one applied torque, the recommended method for modeling torque-free motion is to define a ConstantTorque instance with its Torque (get / set) configured to be Zero (get) and its DefinedInAxes (get / set) configured to be the body axes of the rigid body.

Custom Torques

Custom torques can be created by extending the TorqueModel class and defining a TorqueEvaluator which computes the torque. (See the Evaluators And Evaluator Groups topic for more information about how evaluators work.) An example of how to create a linear torque model follows:

Java
// Create a new type derived from TorqueModel. This type represents a time-varying torque
// that is equal to the InitialTorque at time Epoch but varies linearly over time
// at a rate equal to TorqueRate.
public static class LinearTorque extends TorqueModel {
    public LinearTorque(Cartesian initialTorque, Cartesian torqueRate, JulianDate epoch, Axes referenceAxes) {
        m_initialTorque = initialTorque;
        m_torqueRate = torqueRate;
        m_epoch = epoch;
        m_referenceAxes = referenceAxes;
    }

    private LinearTorque(LinearTorque existingInstance, CopyContext context) {
        super(existingInstance, context);
        m_initialTorque = existingInstance.m_initialTorque;
        m_torqueRate = existingInstance.m_torqueRate;
        m_epoch = existingInstance.m_epoch;
        m_referenceAxes = context.updateReference(existingInstance.m_referenceAxes);
    }

    // This is called to make a copy of the object, which it does by calling the
    // copy constructor above.
    @Override
    public Object clone(CopyContext context) {
        return new LinearTorque(this, context);
    }

    // This method is only called by the IsSameDefinition method in the base class to
    // determine if two torque models are equivalent. Derived classes MUST override this method and
    // check all new fields introduced by the derived class for definitional equivalence. It
    // is NOT necessary to check base class fields because the base class will already have
    // done that.
    @Override
    protected final boolean checkForSameDefinition(TorqueModel other) {
        LinearTorque o = other instanceof LinearTorque ? (LinearTorque) other : null;
        return o != null 
                && areSameDefinition(m_initialTorque, o.m_initialTorque) 
                && areSameDefinition(m_torqueRate, o.m_torqueRate) 
                && areSameDefinition(m_epoch, o.m_epoch)
                && areSameDefinition(m_referenceAxes, o.m_referenceAxes) 
                && checkForSameDefinition(o);
    }

    // This method allows all types derived from LinearTorque to continue the process
    // of making unique CheckForSameDefinition methods.
    protected boolean checkForSameDefinition(LinearTorque other) {
        return other != null && other.getClass().equals(LinearTorque.class);
    }

    // Called to determine a hash code for the current configuration of this object.
    // Derived classes MUST override this method and compute a hash code that combines: 
    // a unique hash code seed, the base implementation result, and the 
    // hash codes of all new fields introduced by the derived class which are used 
    // in the CheckForSameDefinition method.
    @Override
    protected int computeCurrentDefinitionHashCode() {
        return HashCode.combine(-949131265, 
                super.computeCurrentDefinitionHashCode(), 
                getDefinitionHashCode(m_initialTorque),
                getDefinitionHashCode(m_torqueRate), 
                getDefinitionHashCode(m_epoch),
                getDefinitionHashCode(m_referenceAxes));
    }

    // Called to enumerate all of the other objects on which this object depends.  This
    // allows clients to navigate the graph of objects related to a computation.
    @Override
    public void enumerateDependencies(DependencyEnumerator enumerator) {
        super.enumerateDependencies(enumerator);
        enumerator.enumerate(m_referenceAxes);
    }

    // The time in which the torque is equal to the InitialTorque.
    public final JulianDate getEpoch() {
        return m_epoch;
    }

    // The time in which the torque is equal to the InitialTorque.
    public final void setEpoch(JulianDate value) {
        // Called to ensure that properties cannot be set if
        // the object is frozen.
        throwIfFrozen();
        m_epoch = value;
    }

    // The torque vector at the Epoch.
    public final Cartesian getInitialTorque() {
        return m_initialTorque;
    }

    // The torque vector at the Epoch.
    public final void setInitialTorque(Cartesian value) {
        throwIfFrozen();
        m_initialTorque = value;
    }

    // The rate at which the torque changes over time.
    public final Cartesian getTorqueRate() {
        return m_torqueRate;
    }

    // The rate at which the torque changes over time.
    public final void setTorqueRate(Cartesian value) {
        throwIfFrozen();
        m_torqueRate = value;
    }

    // The reference axes that the torque is defined relative to.
    // These are usually the body axes of the rigid body.
    public final Axes getReferenceAxes() {
        return m_referenceAxes;
    }

    // The reference axes that the torque is defined relative to.
    // These are usually the body axes of the rigid body.
    public final void setReferenceAxes(Axes value) {
        throwIfFrozen();
        m_referenceAxes = value;
    }

    // This method is responsible for returning an instance of the private
    // LinearTorqueEvaluator class. It should ensure that the properties are not null or
    // in an invalid state, and then use the evaluator group when it constructs
    // and returns an instance of the LinearTorqueEvaluator.
    @Override
    public TorqueEvaluator getTorqueEvaluator(EvaluatorGroup group) {
        if (group == null) {
            throw new ArgumentNullException("group");
        }
        if (getReferenceAxes() == null) {
            throw new PropertyInvalidException("ReferenceAxes", PropertyInvalidException.PropertyCannotBeNull);
        }

        return group.createEvaluator(getEvaluatorCallback);
    }

    // This method, which is passed to the evaluator group in the method above as a delegate,
    // will only be called by the delegate if the evaluator does not yet exist in the group
    // and needs to be created.
    private final LinearTorqueEvaluator createEvaluator(EvaluatorGroup group) {
        return new LinearTorqueEvaluator(group, m_epoch, m_initialTorque, m_torqueRate, m_referenceAxes);
    }

    // This method is used by PropagationEulerianAxes to combine all the torques
    // that are applied upon the rigid body.
    @Override
    public void buildTorqueEvaluator(ResultantTorqueBuilder builder, EvaluatorGroup group) {
        if (builder == null) {
            throw new ArgumentNullException("builder");
        }
        if (group == null) {
            throw new ArgumentNullException("group");
        }
        builder.addTorque(getTorqueEvaluator(group));
    }

    private final EvaluatorGroup.Callback0<TorqueEvaluator> getEvaluatorCallback =
            EvaluatorGroup.Callback0.of(this::createEvaluator);
    private Cartesian m_initialTorque = new Cartesian();
    private Cartesian m_torqueRate = new Cartesian();
    private JulianDate m_epoch = new JulianDate();
    private Axes m_referenceAxes;

    // This is the definition of the Evaluator that is used to actually evaluate this TorqueModel.
    // Because it is a private, nested class, it is not visible outside of the
    // LinearTorque class. This is ok, though, because once it is created users only
    // interact with it via a reference to its base class: TorqueEvaluator.
    private static final class LinearTorqueEvaluator extends TorqueEvaluator {
        public LinearTorqueEvaluator(EvaluatorGroup group, JulianDate epoch, 
                Cartesian initialTorque, Cartesian torqueRate, Axes referenceAxes) {
            super(group);
            m_initialTorque = initialTorque;
            m_torqueRate = torqueRate;
            m_epoch = epoch;
            m_referenceAxes = referenceAxes;
        }

        private LinearTorqueEvaluator(LinearTorqueEvaluator existingInstance, CopyContext context) {
            super(existingInstance, context);
            m_initialTorque = existingInstance.m_initialTorque;
            m_torqueRate = existingInstance.m_torqueRate;
            m_epoch = existingInstance.m_epoch;

            // Use the UpdateReference method on the CopyContext to perform any updates to the
            // reference that are required by the context.
            m_referenceAxes = context.updateReference(existingInstance.m_referenceAxes);
        }

        // This method is used by the EvaluatorGroup system to avoid redundant evaluations. The
        // EvaluatorGroup may call it on your evaluator in order to replace your evaluator's
        // reference to another evaluator with a reference to a version that caches its last
        // result.
        // 
        // In this example, there are no internal evaluators so the method does nothing.
        @Override
        public void updateEvaluatorReferences(CopyContext context) {}

        // The Clone method should call the copy constructor.
        @Override
        public Object clone(CopyContext context) {
            return new LinearTorqueEvaluator(this, context);
        }

        // Override the Dispose method to call the Dispose() method on any nested
        // evaluators or other disposable nested types.
        @Override
        protected void dispose(boolean disposing) {}

        // This method returns a collection of time intervals when data is 
        // available from this Evaluator.
        @Override
        public TimeIntervalCollection getAvailabilityIntervals(TimeIntervalCollection consideredIntervals) {
            return consideredIntervals;
        }

        // This method determines if there is data available from this Evaluator at 
        // the specified date.
        @Override
        public boolean isAvailable(JulianDate date) {
            return true;
        }

        // This property determines if this Evaluator result changes depending on the time at
        // which it is evaluated.
        @Override
        public boolean getIsTimeVarying() {
            // In this example, the torque is time-varying as long as the torque rate is not zero.
            return Cartesian.notEquals(m_torqueRate, Cartesian.getZero());
        }

        // This property determines if this Evaluator can safely be used from multiple threads
        // simultaneously. If the evaluator stores data during the Evaluate call, it is not thread
        // safe. Otherwise, it generally is thread safe as long as any nested evaluators it uses
        // are thread safe.
        @Override
        public boolean getIsThreadSafe() {
            return true;
        }

        // This is where we do the actual evaluation of the torque at a particular time.
        @Override
        public Cartesian evaluate(JulianDate date) {
            // The initial torque vector is added to the torque rate multiplied
            // by the time elapsed since the reference epoch to form the linear
            // torque model.
            return Cartesian.add(m_initialTorque, Cartesian.multiply(m_epoch.secondsDifference(date), m_torqueRate));
        }

        // The evaluator is defined to produce torques that are defined
        // with respect to the reference axes, which is usually the body
        // axes of the rigid body.
        @Override
        public Axes getDefinedIn() {
            return m_referenceAxes;
        }

        private Cartesian m_initialTorque = new Cartesian();
        private Cartesian m_torqueRate = new Cartesian();
        private JulianDate m_epoch = new JulianDate();
        private Axes m_referenceAxes;
    }
}

Attitude Propagation Example

A combined orbit propagation and attitude propagation example that illustrates the functionality of the gravity-gradient torque model and the custom LinearTorque model defined above is provided below:

Java
// The first step of creating a NumericalPropagator is to create and populate
// a NumericalPropagatorDefinition.
NumericalPropagatorDefinition definition = new NumericalPropagatorDefinition();

// Epoch is September 5, 2022 at 11:30:00.000 UTC.
JulianDate epoch = new GregorianDate(2022, 9, 5, 11, 30, 0.0).toJulianDate();
definition.setEpoch(epoch);

// A PropagationNewtonianPoint is defined to provide the position of a
// gravity-gradient satellite in an equatorial circular orbit with an
// altitude of 300 km.
KeplerianElements elements = new KeplerianElements(WorldGeodeticSystem1984.SemimajorAxis + 300000.0,
        0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, WorldGeodeticSystem1984.GravitationalParameter);
Motion1<Cartesian> initialOrbitalState = elements.toCartesian();

PropagationNewtonianPoint point = new PropagationNewtonianPoint();
point.setInitialPosition(initialOrbitalState.getValue());
point.setInitialVelocity(initialOrbitalState.getFirstDerivative());
point.getAppliedForces().add(new TwoBodyGravity(point.getIntegrationPoint()));
point.setMass(Scalar.toScalar(100D)); // kg

// The attitude of the spacecraft is defined by a PropagationEulerianAxes.
Cartesian initialAngularVelocity = new Cartesian(0.05, 0.0, 0.01); // rad/s
UnitQuaternion initialAttitudeQuaternion = UnitQuaternion.getIdentity(); // The body frame and inertial frame are initially aligned.
final double transverseMomentOfInertia = 200.0; // kg*m^2
final double spinMomentOfInertia = 100.0; // kg*m^2
Matrix3By3Symmetric axisymmetricInertiaMatrix = Matrix3By3Symmetric.diagonalMatrix(transverseMomentOfInertia, transverseMomentOfInertia, spinMomentOfInertia);

PropagationEulerianAxes attitude = new PropagationEulerianAxes();
attitude.setInitialAttitudeQuaternion(initialAttitudeQuaternion);
attitude.setInitialAngularVelocity(initialAngularVelocity);
attitude.setInertiaMatrix(axisymmetricInertiaMatrix);

// Add linear torque and gravity-gradient torque to PropagationEulerianAxes.
LinearTorque linearTorque = new LinearTorque(Cartesian.getZero(), UnitCartesian.multiply(0.00000001, UnitCartesian.getUnitZ()), epoch, attitude.getIntegrationAxes());
GravityGradientTorque gravityGradientTorque = new GravityGradientTorque(point.getIntegrationPoint(), axisymmetricInertiaMatrix, attitude.getIntegrationAxes());
attitude.getAppliedTorques().add(linearTorque);
attitude.getAppliedTorques().add(gravityGradientTorque);

// Add point and attitude to NumericalPropagatorDefinition.
definition.getIntegrationElements().add(point);
definition.getIntegrationElements().add(attitude);

// Define integrator.
RungeKutta4Integrator integrator = new RungeKutta4Integrator();
integrator.setInitialStepSize(1.0);
integrator.setDirection(IntegrationSense.INCREASING);
definition.setIntegrator(integrator);

// Create a propagator and propagate for 1 day.
NumericalPropagator propagator = definition.createPropagator();
NumericalPropagationStateHistory history = propagator.propagate(new Duration(1, 0.0), 1);

// Extract results for the location and attitude of the gravity-gradient satellite.
DateMotionCollection1<Cartesian> locationHistory 
    = history.getDateMotionCollection(point.getIdentification());
DateMotionCollection1<RotationVectorAngularVelocity> rotationHistory 
    = history.getDateMotionCollection(attitude.getIdentification());

// Transform rotation history to a more usable form.
DateMotionCollection2<UnitQuaternion, Cartesian> transformedRotationHistory 
    = RotationVectorAngularVelocity.toDateMotionCollectionUnitQuaternionCartesian(rotationHistory, 1);
// Extract the final Motion value from this collection.
Motion2<UnitQuaternion, Cartesian> finalMotion 
    = transformedRotationHistory.getMotions().get(transformedRotationHistory.getCount() - 1);
UnitQuaternion finalAttitude = finalMotion.getValue();
Cartesian finalAngularVelocity = finalMotion.getFirstDerivative(); // rad/s, in inertial coordinates.